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台灣文學英譯叢刊(No. 43):鄭清文紀念專輯

Taiwan Literature: English Translation Series, no. 43 (Special Issue in Memory of Tzeng Ching-wen)

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    內容簡介

    本輯以鄭清文的小說與兒童文學為主題,承鄭清文女兒谷苑的協助,推薦具有代表性的小說暨兒童文學作品多篇,並請她寫一篇關於父親作品的文章〈A Storyteller—In Memory of Tzeng Ching-wen〉。散文方面,Taipei, City of Displacements(《錯置,臺北城》)的作者周文龍教授(Joseph R. Allen),對臺北的地理變遷和文化空間的歷史演變具有深入的研究,特地請他幫忙翻譯〈大水河畔的童年〉,相得益彰。其餘幾篇鄭清文之原著則分別由由長期耕耘台灣文學英譯的黃瑛姿、葛浩文(Howard Goldblatt)、林麗君、陶忘機(John Balcom)與羅德仁(Terence Russell)擔綱譯出。

    The latest special issue of Taiwan Literature: English Translation Series focuses on the fictions and children''s stories written by Tzeng Ching-wen. For this special issue, we are thankful to Angela Ku-yuan Tzeng for her assistance in recommending representative stories for translation and for her essay, “A Storyteller—In Memory of Tzeng Ching-wen,” in memory of her father. For the essay, “Boyhood on the Banks of the Grand River,” we appreciate expert assistance from Joseph R. Allen, the author of Taipei: City of Displacements, a comprehensive study of Taipei with regard to its geographical changes and historical development in terms of cultural space.

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    作者介紹

    Kuo-ching Tu、Terence Russell編(杜國清、羅德仁)

    【About the Editors】

    Kuo-ch''ing Tu, born in Taichung, Taiwan, graduated from National Taiwan University (1963) with a major in English literature. He received his M.A. in Japanese literature from Kwansei Gakuin University (1970) and his Ph.D. in Chinese literature from Stanford University (1974). His research interests include Chinese literature, Chinese poetics and literary theories, comparative literature East and West, and world literatures of Chinese (Shi-Hua wenxue). He is the author of numerous books of poetry in Chinese, as well as translator of English, Japanese, and French works into Chinese. He holds the Lai Ho and Wu Choliu Endowed Chair in Taiwan Studies at the Department of East Asian Languages and Cultural Studies, University of California at Santa Barbara, and has been co-editor of Taiwan Literature: English Translation Series since its initial publication in 1996. His recent publications include Shanhe lueying [A Sweeping View of China''s Mountains and Rivers], Yuyan ji [Jade Smoke Collection: Fifty Variations on Li Shangyin''s Songs of the Ornamented Zither], Shilun, shiping, shilunshi [Poetics, Poetic Critiques, and Poems of Poetics], and Taiwan wenxue yu Shi-Hua wenxue [Taiwan Literature and World Literatures of Chinese].

    Terence Russell is Senior Scholar in the Asian Studies Center at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Manitoba. His early research dealt with classical Chinese literature and religion, but for the past few years his interest has turned to contemporary literature in Chinese, especially the literature of Taiwan''s indigenous people. His publications include studies of Adaw Palaf, Auvini Kadresengan, and Syaman Rapongan. He has also published articles on Zhu Tianxin, Zheng Qingwen, and identity politics in Taiwan, including the situation of the Pepoan peoples. Dr. Russell has a strong interest in translation and translation theory and has been a regular contributor to the Taiwan Literature: English Translation Series, and was the guest editor of Issue 24 on Taiwan indigenous myths and oral literature. He has edited two volumes in the Foguang University Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures Occasional Papers Series. His literary translations include full-length translations of award-winning Chinese author Zhang Wei''s novels: September''s Fable (2007), and Seven Kinds of Mushrooms in 2009.

    【About the Translators and Guest Contributor】

    Joseph R. Allen (Ph.D., University of Washington, Seattle) is Professor Emeritus of Chinese Literature and Cultural Studies in the department of Asian Languages and Literatures, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities. His study, Taipei: City of Displacement (University of Washington Press, 2012), won the Joseph Levenson book award. He is currently researching the history of photography in Taiwan.

    John Balcom teaches at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies. Recent translations include Abyss by Ya Hsien (Zephyr), which was a finalist for the 2017 PEN poetry in translation award, and, with Yingtsih Balcom, Memories of Mount Qilai: The Education of a Young Poet by Yang Mu (Columbia University Press).

    Howard Goldblatt has been translating Taiwan literature for more than forty years. His work includes the translation of Pai Hsienyung''s novel Niezi [Crystal Boys] and the stories of Huang Chun-Ming.

    Yingtsih Hwang is a poetry blogger and an independent translator based in Monterey.

    Sylvia Li-chun Lin, a native of Tainan, Taiwan, has translated short stories and co-translated full-length novels from Taiwan and China, including Li Ang''s The Lost Garden (Columbia University Press, 2015), and Wang Ting-kuo''s My Enemy''s Cherry Tree (forthcoming 2019, Portobello).

    Terence Russell is Senior Scholar in the Asian Studies Center at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Manitoba. His early research dealt with classical Chinese literature and religion, but for the past few years his interest has turned to contemporary literature in Chinese, especially the literature of Taiwan''s indigenous people. His publications include studies of Adaw Palaf, Auvini Kadresengan, and Syaman Rapongan. He has also published articles on Zhu Tianxin, Zheng Qingwen, and identity politics in Taiwan, including the situation of the Pepoan peoples. Dr. Russell has a strong interest in translation and translation theory and has been a regular contributor to the Taiwan Literature: English Translation Series, and was the guest editor of Issue 24 on Taiwan indigenous myths and oral literature. He has edited two volumes in the Foguang University Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures Occasional Papers Series. His literary translations include full-length translations of award-winning Chinese author Zhang Wei''s novels: September''s Fable (2007), and Seven Kinds of Mushrooms in 2009.

    Angela Ku-yuan Tzeng was born in August 1964 in Taipei, Taiwan. She received her Ph.D. in Cognitive Psychology from UC, Riverside. She is currently an associate professor at the Department of Psychology in Chung Yuan Christian University. Her research interests are psycholinguistics, bilingualism, and language and evolution. She is the author of two books, including Tzeng Ching-wen''s biography, Out of the Gorge: Life of Tzeng Ching-wen, and a book about psychology and literature Through the Mind-reading Glass. She has translated five books, including Love at Goon Park: Harry Harlow and the Science of Affection by Deborah Blum and Unbroken Brain by Maia Szalavitz.

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    詳細資料

    EAN / 9789863503187
    頁數 / 256
    裝訂 / 平裝
    級別 / 普
    語言 / 繁體/中文

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    目錄

    Foreword to the Special Issue in Memory of Tzeng Ching-wen/Kuo-ch''ing Tu
    「鄭清文紀念專輯」卷頭語/杜國清

    Essays
    A Storyteller — In Memory of Tzeng Ching-wen/Angela Ku-yuan Tzeng
    The Witness of the Trees — Written Before the “International Conference on Tzeng Ching-wen” 樹的見證—寫在鄭清文國際學術研討會之前/Translated by Terence Russell
    Boyhood on the Banks of the Grand River 大水河畔的童年/Translated by Joseph R. Allen

    Fiction
    A Pair of Turtle Doves 一對斑鳩/Translated by Yingtsih Hwang
    The Death of Black-Face Jinwang 黑面進旺之死/Translated by John Balcom
    Engagement 婚約/Translated by John Balcom
    Returning to the Old Home故里人歸/Translated by Yingtsih Hwang
    A Murder in the Chiang Kai-shek Memorial 中正紀念堂命案/Translated by Howard Goldblatt
    Green Pepper Seedlings 青椒苗/Translated by Sylvia Li-chun Lin
    The Red Brick Embankment 紅磚港坪/Translated by Terence Russell

    Children''s Stories
    Cold Winter, Sky Lantern, Mother 寒冬‧天燈‧母親/Translated by Sylvia Li-chun Lin
    Li Garden 麗花園/Translated by Howard Goldblatt
    The Green Stink Beetle 臭青龜子/Translated by Terence Russell
    Treasure Mountain 萬寶山/Translated by John Balcom

    Editor''s Note
    About the Translators and Guest Contributor
    About the Editors
    Subscription Form

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    「鄭清文紀念專輯」卷頭語(摘錄)

    杜國清

    鄭清文(1932年9月16日-2017年11月4日),是一位傑出的台灣作家,一生致力於小說和兒童文學創作,具有獨特的寫作風格,反映台灣戰後四、五十年的社會變遷和人生滄桑。2017年冬天因心肌梗塞過世,享壽85歲。

    鄭清文出生於1932年日本統治時期的桃園鄉下,本姓李,一歲過繼新莊舅父,改姓鄭。七歲入新莊公學校,受日本教育。1945年,就讀私立台北國民中學校初中,開始學習中文。經台北商業職業學校高商部,1954年入國立臺灣大學商學系;1958年畢業後,任職華南銀行,四十多年,利用閒暇從事寫作。1998年元月自銀行退休。作品大多發表於報紙副刊和文藝雜誌,一生共創作短篇小說300多篇,長篇小說3部,兒童小說5本,以及報導文學、評論和翻譯等。晚年專注於台灣童話文學的寫作,著重於培養兒童創造的想像力,出版《燕心果》、《天燈、母親》、《採桃記:鄭清文童話》等兒童小說的作品。

    1958年27歲時,發表第一篇小說〈寂寞的心〉。1965年,出版第一本短篇小說集《簸箕谷》,1970年,第一部長篇小說《峽地》出版。1987年,榮獲吳三連文藝獎的小說獎項,1998年《鄭清文短篇小說全集》6卷和別卷,由麥田出版公司出版。1998年哥倫比亞大學出版社出版英譯選集Three Legged Horse(《三腳馬》),1999年,獲得美國桐山環太平洋書卷獎小說獎,此為台灣作家首次獲得這項國際文學獎。林麗君教授在《三腳馬》的書評中,點出鄭清文作品的三個基本的文學精神:鄭清文是台灣文學史上最始如一(consistent)和堅持不懈(persistent)的作家之一:堅持不懈,是因為他的寫作生涯開始於六〇年代,跨越四十多年,而他的同世代作家有許多作家的產品已經減退;始終如一,是因為他的主題,一向追隨著台灣的社會和政治變遷,少有不同。鄭清文也是一位最具抵抗性(resistant)的作家,從來不受變化無常的大眾趣味和任性的文學思潮所左右。所有這些特點完全表現在英譯《三腳馬》這本書中,收入哥倫比亞大學出版的Modern Literature from Taiwan Series(《台灣現代華文文學》)系列中。

    2005年,鄭清文榮獲第九屆國家文藝獎。翌年6月,國立中正大學江寶釵教授和加拿大雅博達大學林鎮山教授聯合籌辦「鄭清文國際學術研討會」,並出版一本鄭清文文學論集《樹的見證》,確定他是一位很有代表性的當代台灣作家。

    鄭清文的作品以兩個舊鎮為主要舞台,以兩個童年為小說人物的人生背景。他的作品常出現地名「舊鎮」,其實影射他童年的居住地新莊。一如他在〈大水河畔的童年〉這篇散文中所說的,「我出生在桃園鄉下,卻在舊鎮長大。因此,我擁有兩個童年,也擁有兩個故鄉。」他在在桃園鄉下看到了農民的辛勞,在舊鎮體會到庶民的勤勉,這兩者成為他的小說人物的主要個性。舊鎮只有一條長長的街,南邊劃過大水河。他說,「每一條河,都有流不完的故事,形成了一部壯大的歷史。和這比較舊鎮只能說是一段小插曲而已。實際上,我的真正的童年,也是在那一條大水河。幾乎,所有的舊鎮的人都和大水河發生過關係。」本叢刊特地選譯他的〈大河畔的童年〉這篇散文,在在說明他是一個熱愛鄉土、書寫故鄉、代表臺灣的本土作家。

    關於鄭清文的小說的特點和風格,已有不少學者論述。他的文學滋養,不是來自中國文學傳統,而是透過日文深受西方文學和創作理論的陶冶和教養,也深受西方作家的啟發。評論他的文章,必然提到,他常以含蓄簡潔的纖細筆法,描述人物複雜的心理,這樣的風格主要受海明威的「冰山理論」影響。

    陳垣三在〈追尋—論鄭清文的文體〉中,引述七○年代洪醒夫的一篇鄭清文訪問記〈誠實與含蓄的故事〉,說明他的創作理念:「第一、我不喜歡浮華的字眼。第二、我認為簡單的字有簡單的好處,因為它簡單,所以它可以含蓄得更多。」

    在八○年代黃武忠的訪問記〈風格的創造者〉中,鄭清文更明白的說:「在我的作品中,有海明威和契訶夫的影子。」海明威強調「冰山十分之九在水裡,只有十分之一在水上」,使得鄭清文的創作,用字簡單、句子簡短、對話平白、甚至常常以對話的進行推展情節,對人物的面貌和動作,不做細節的描述和說明,而形成他的小說獨特的文體。

    鄭清文作為一個小說家的啟蒙、以及他的小說世界的形成,一如他在〈偶然與必然—文學的形成〉這篇散文所說明的,是偶然也是必然。偶然是機遇,必然是天賦。他的天賦,或者說創作才華,在於富於想像、語言精純、善於觀察、構思巧妙。他的作品具有洞察人生的思想深度,悲天憫人的生命關懷、巧於隱喻象徵的藝術高度、以及對自然和人生的謙卑敦厚態度。

    關於鄭清文小說的創作手法,如前所述,深受海明威的影響。鄭清文喜歡透過簡單的結構、平淡的敘事語言書寫,而將深層的含義隱藏作品之中,雖然時常受到讀者「簡單卻讀不懂」的抱怨,他卻始終堅信著這個原則,使他的作品,看來似不艱深,卻蘊含深沉的心理意涵。另一方面,鄭清文服膺契訶夫:「作家不做判官,只做證人」,他要把充滿悲劇的人生百態的本相如實地呈現出來,令人深思,也帶有憐憫和同情。

    他的創作觀構成他的寫作風格。一般而言,他的作品呈現在對人生和社會的冷靜觀察,只呈現事實,不做判斷的客觀手法。他常訴諸自然界的各種萬物,藉以暗示深刻的隱喻、哲理和認知。他的文字簡潔而不誇飾、語言平實而不矯作,但是就表現內容而言,他的作品又常是微言大義,寓意深刻。結果有些讀者抱怨,他的作品「難懂」,因此很難迎合大眾的趣味。不論是創作手法或表現內容,他的作品在我看來,藝術性相當高,也相當接近於詩,清純雋永,耐人尋味。

    基於我對詩的象徵主義和即物主義的了解,鄭清文小說的表現技巧和作品內涵,很接近於詩,我稱之為「詩的小說」,呼應我早期對川端康成小說這一特色的探討。(見拙文〈川端康成與「詩的小說」〉(1972)。他的小說與即物詩和象徵詩這兩種詩觀,都有不謀而合之處。鄭清文文學的藝術成就,值得進一歩深入的探討。

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